br Epigenetic DNA damage marker br Serum OHdG showed
5.3. Epigenetic & DNA damage marker
Serum 8-OHdG showed statistically significant increase in Group II, III & IV patients as compared to control group (P < 0.05). Further, its level was statistically significantly increased in Group IV when compared to Group II &III as well as in Group III when compared to Group II (Table 2).
As shown in (Table 2), Serum thioredoxin reductase activity was statistically significant decrease in Group II, III & IV patients as compared to control group (P < 0.05). Further, its level was
Comparison of biochemical findings among the studied groups.
Data presented as mean ± SD n; number of cases.
Comparison between the studied groups was performed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post hoc test. *P value was considered significant at<0.05. Group I: control group, Group II: Diabetic patients Group III: Breast cancer patients & Group IV: Diabetic patients with breast cancer. a Significantly different as compared with control group. b Significant different as compared with Group II. c Significant different as compared with Group III. FABP-4: Fatty Bradykinin (acetate) binding protein-4, VEGF: Vascular endothelial growth factor, TNF-a: Tumor necrosis factor-a, 8-OHdG: 8-Hydroxy 2-Deoxyguanosine, TrxR: Thioredoxin reductase, FBG: Fating blood glucose, PBG: PTC:, Total cholesterol, TAG: Triacylglycerol, HDL-C: High density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C: Low density lipoprotein cholesterol.
statistically significantly decreased in Group IV when compared to Group II &III as well as in Group III when compared to Group II (Table 2).
5.4. Glycemic control & lipid profile
FBG & PBG showed statistically significant increase in Group II
Serum TC, TAG, LDL-C showed statistically significant increase in Group II, III & IV patients as compared to control group (P < 0.05). Group IV showed statistically significant increase in comparison to Group III. Also they showed statistically significant increase in Group II as compared to Group III (Table 2).
Serum HDL-C showed statistically significant decrease in Group II, III & IV patients as compared to control group (P < 0.05) (Table 3). Group IV showed statistically significant decrease in comparison to Group III. Also they showed statistically significant decrease in Group II as compared to Group III (Table 2). There is also positive correlation between VEGF & TNF-a (Table 4).
Oxidative stress associated with insulin resistance induced obesity is the main determinant of type 2 diabetes . Obesity is associated with adipose tissue inflammation and increased secre-tion of pro-inflammatory adipokines such as fatty acid-binding
Correlations between Serum FABP-4 & different studied parameters among Group II,
*P value was considered significant at <0.05.
protein-4 (FABP-4), & tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a) . This study found significant elevation in serum FABP-4 level in
breast cancer subjects with type 2 diabetes compared with breast cancer, diabetic & normal subjects. Moreover, it was significantly elevated in breast cancer subjects compared with diabetic & normal subjects. Additionally, it was significantly elevated in dia-betic subjects in comparison with normal subjects.
These findings aligned with Lehmann F et al. (2004) who stated that FABP-4 acts at the interface of metabolic and inflammatory pathways and plays a significant role in the development of obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes . As well as, these find-ings are compatible with Garin-Shkolnik T et al. (2014) who re-ported that FABP-4 impairs insulin sensitivity and decreases expression of insulin-sensitizing adiponectin .
Consistently, Hancke K et al. (2010) confirmed that Circulating FABP-4 is higher in patients with breast cancer than in healthy individuals. Moreover, they reported that breast cancer patients with high serum levels of FABP-4 have a worse prognosis .
FABP-4 is an important protein which transports free fatty acids that are involved in lipid metabolism in different breast cancer subtypes . In addition, this study revealed positive correlation between FABP-4 & BMI and this aligned with Hancke K et al. (2010) who also showed significant higher mean serum FABP-4 levels in obese over non-obese breast cancer patients and controls .
Considerable emphasis has been placed on the relationship of FABP-4 with anthropometric indices and factors associated with insulin resistance & obesity . BMI of breast cancer patients was higher than in women with benign lesions particularly for post-menopausal women demonstrating the link between obesity and breast cancer .